I haven’t posted much lately, basically I’ve spent every moment of free time working in the garden! We’ve accomplished a lot and I’m excited to host a garden tour next month to share it with others. I’ll have plenty of information materials and photos to help explain how this garden has evolved, and hopefully inspire others to garden with native plants.
Back at home, we had a pretty good summer. I attended a Wild Ones garden tour and got to see some other native plant gardens in the area, which was really cool. It’s interesting to see all the different things that people are doing in their yard. Some people are very experienced gardeners and you can really tell by how well planned things are. Others are like me, someone who doesn’t come from any gardening background, and just goes outside and starts digging. A few people from Wild Ones came over and visited our yard, and I got some really good compliments and feedback. They are always looking for new gardens to showcase so it sounds like we will be on the tour next summer!It’s really motivated me to work on some things that I’ve been meaning to. For example in the front yard, on the SW corner by the street, I finally got some planting done there. Several years ago in that spot, I got rid of an old neglected (hideous) brick garden bed that was full of buckthorn. Last year we had Ecoscapes create a new garden bed as part of the front yard work they did, and add some rocks, but otherwise we left it empty. This area gets partial sun during the day. Now I’ve got some gray dogwood, wild geranium, fragrant hyssop, bottle brush grass, prairie pussytoes, aster, goldenrod, etc. I also put up a Monarch Watch sign because I want to highlight our efforts to anyone passing by. It’s worked because I’ve gotten several comments and compliments from neighbors who have seen it. I plan to include the neighborhood in our garden tour next year. In the back I’ve cleared out all of the buckthorn around the pine tree area, and started a path through there as well as planted a few things that will grow under those trees like common ninebark, American bladdernut, and bear berry. There are some additional things I’d like to plant but that will be an ongoing process. I wanted to plant some gooseberry but the folks at Out Back Nursery told me that it can carry pine rust which would be bad for our white pines.
We didn’t have anything too unusual in the yard as far as birds, but we did have a lot of fun watching a family of four pileated woodpeckers coming to the feeders. It was an adult pair and a juvenile male and female. There were times when all of them would be out there in the bur oak tree, and the parents would go to the suet feeder and then take it back to their fledglings. I sat outside sometimes and watched them. It was interesting to hear the begging noises that the juveniles would make and watch their behavior.With all the rain through the spring and early summer, we of course had a lot of mosquitos and consequently, many damselflies and dragonflies. Recently with the weather becoming cooler, there have been fewer of them but I caught this one snoozing on the false indigo in the garden the other day. I was able to put my phone right next ot it and get a photo. A knowledgable person told me that this is a wandering glider. They are our most plentiful species of dragonfly, are found on every continent except Antarctica, and have the longest migration of any insect (twice as long as the monarch butterfly.) One reason I enjoy having a native wildlife garden is that it gives me such great opportunities to learn things I wouldn’t have otherwise known about!
Also we had a lot of butterflies in the garden over the summer. Many tiger swallowtails and monarchs. I found 3 monarch caterpillars on our butterfly weed, and I found some at work that I brought home. I raised them and successfully released 5 in the garden! That was a first for me, a fun process and I learned a lot. I kept them in a cage outside so they would have natural light and temp/humidity. When they emerged I’d leave the door open and let them leave on their own. We have plenty of Joe Pye weed, cup plant and aster for them to nectar on. Also many monarchs moving through, I counted 16 in the garden at one time!
A few other cool things that have happened more recently as we transition to fall. I’ve seen a ton of baby toads in the yard over the last month or so. Also this past weekend we were cleaning out the gutters (full of leaves from the ash tree) and I found a tree frog in the gutter. I took it down and put it in the garden and then turned on the sprinkler since it’s been dry lately. While the sprinkler was running I watched a mourning dove, a goldfinch and a chipping sparrow take baths, which was really cute. Also the same day I was out grilling on the patio and a white-line sphynx moth made an appearance. It was only the second time I’ve seen one, and they are noticably larger than the clear wing hummingbird moth. It was about the same size as an actual hummingbird, and very difficult to follow it with the camera. But I did manage to get one photo of it, on flowers between the patio and deck.
Lastly, at work there have been crazy numbers of woolly bear caterpillars. I’ve seen them over the years in the past but never really thought too much about them. We have walking trails at work, and they are crossing the trails, curbs, and parking lots. I always try to move them so they aren’t stepped on or run over. Since there are so many and they have really caught my attention, I started reading up on them and learned that they will overwinter in caterpillar form, and are looking for a place to burrow under leaf litter.
We leave our garden up all winter and let the leaves remain in the garden where they fall, so I decided to start taking some of them home and release them. Next spring they will emerge as a yellow moth called the Isabella tiger moth. I’ve become quite attached to them, they are cute and I’ve probably taken a couple dozen of them home (my coworkers think I have a problem…)
We wanted privacy along the north side of the property, but didn’t need it along the back part, since the lot is deep and we have the garden providing its own natural privacy. Also we didn’t want to cast additional shade on the garden back there. So we went with 6 foot California chain link (same height as the wood privacy), which is chain link attached to wooden posts instead of metal. It was something that the fencing company suggested when I explained what we were trying to accomplish. It turned out to be the perfect solution.
There is a utility easment along the back edge of the property. It is our property that we are responsible for, but we had to keep fence off of it so that it doesn’t prevent access for utility workers. We made sure to measure everything and also had a gate installed so that we can get back there and maintain the area.The property line ends at the telephone pole, so the next photo (looking south along the east property line) shows how the fence is set back from that. I insisted on a 6 foot wide double gate, just to make sure that we had plenty of room to maneuver in that area if needed.
The nice thing about the California chain link is that it really doesn’t detract from the look of the garden. It actually blends in quite well, but gives a better sense of definition around that part of the yard. Also I think it looks better for the neighbors adjacent to the back of the property.Even though we have a native garden, that is left somewhat on its own the further we get away from the house, I still want it to look like it’s well-managed. It wouldn’t be a good example for others to appreciate native plants, if it were just an ugly bunch of weeds and grass left to go wild. I try to be mindful of that and give the neighbors a good impression of our native garden, that we are doing all this with a purpose and are keeping up with it. Here’s a view from inside the fence, at the back part of the garden looking toward the gate.
Things got off to a slow start in the garden with the long winter we had, but now most of the wildflowers are in full bloom. We have plenty of bees, dragonflies and are seeing monarch butterflies.
Right now we have Joe Pye weed (a great nectar source for butterflies), wild bergamot (visited by bumblebees and hummingbird moths), various types of milkweed, Culvers root, black-eyed Susan, coneflower, cup plant and royal catchfly all providing a lot of color.
As for birds, we have many juvenile woodpeckers, including a mother-son pileated woodpecker pair that comes to the feeder often. It’s fun to watch her go to the suet feeder, grab a beak full and take it over to him. A neighbor told me about a hawk that took a chipmunk, so I assume that was a broad winged hawk since I hear them often when I’m out in the yard. I haven’t seen many hummingbirds, but it won’t be long before we start seeing males moving through on their migration back south. Lately we’ve had a lot of baby toads hopping around, so hopefully they are enjoying the garden too.
In this next photo we are looking east from the patio. The neighbor on our south side has had a privacy fence for a long time, seen on the right side of the photo. We didn’t completely enclose our yard with the fence like theirs (we left it unfenced on the east side, by the front of the house.)
Lastly, below we have a wider view from the patio, showing the small garden between the patio and deck. We have a bird bath (heated in winter) that gets regular use. Far off in the back is the California chain link, with the wooden frame visible in this view. We also have a mulch path around the edge of the garden, and we plan to continue reducing the amount of grass by replacing with more flowers toward the back,behind the bluebird box. We’ve accomplished a lot in the yard this summer!
This next photo shows where the fence has to come over off of the property line in order to accommodate the utility easement. Imagine this spot completely obscured by buckthorn. The California chain link will start here and then continue along the back side of the property. It uses the same cedar posts as the wood privacy, but will be filled in with black vinyl coated chain link.
We also have a utility easment on the south side, so we had to make sure the fence was set back far enough. Another easement at the north east corner required us to have the fence go through an area of pine trees. There is a large area of white pine and spruce trees that was completely filled in with buckthorn, which I have gradually been tackling for several years. This fence project gave me the motivation to finally finish clearing all that out. It was quite a bit of work but I’m officially declaring our yard buckthorn free after 9 years of effort!
This area of pine and spruce used to be an impenetrable wall of invasive understory plants, including buckthorn, exotic honeysuckle shrubs, and white mulberry. While it provided somewhat of a living privacy fence, it certainly wasn’t my desired way of having privacy. I first tackled all of the buckthorn that had berries, and disposed of that. Then I gradually cut down and pulled much of it over the next few years. But after measuring the easment, I realized I would have to get rid of the remainder so the fence could go through there. Good motivation for finally taking care of that! I made extensive use of my weed wrench to pull out most of it, and then used the chainsaw to cut down larger shrubs and small rogue maple trees. We wil replace that with native understory plants, such as the highbush cranberry that I have already planted.
The compost bin is at the southeast side of the pine tree area. This used to be surrounded by invasive honeysuckle which I have been meaning to cut down for quite a while. I did leave up a small dead snag that shoudl make a good perch for birds. I’d like to plant some native shrubs like common ninebark and gray dogwood here.
Continuing east along the back edge of the lot, we will have a gate between where the compost bin sits and the back section of the garden. This will allow us access to the easement, which is still on our property and we have to maintain. I think the neighbors behind us will be happy that all the buckthorn is finally gone, and the fence should look pretty nice back there. The posts were just installed two days ago, and the cement needs to cure and then they will be back out to finish it out. We’ve been very happy so far with the work that Town & Country Fence has done. Really looking forward to seeing the end result and enjoying our new private back yard!
It was late afternoon and I noticed our resident songbirds were completely frozen in place on the feeders. Normally what that means is there must be a hawk around (Cooper’s or sharp-shinned.) I kept an eye out, looking for it out of the back patio door. Suddenly I saw something land in our maple tree and immediately thought kestrel, and quickly dismissed it because we don’t have those around here.Looked again and confirmed that’s what it was, and got some good looks with the binoculars. It flew to a couple of different perches in the yard before leaving. Since there are no insects around, it was either hunting birds or maybe looking for a mouse. The only prey I noticed was a downy woodpecker and several mourning doves.
We are just on the northern edge of the kestrel’s winter range. I have seen them during the winter closer to the Rochester area and as far north as Cannon Falls. Now that spring is around the corner, they must be moving through. Hopefully he’s finding enough to eat in spite of the continued snow cover. Keep an eye out for kestrels in the warmer months, around open areas like cornfields. They can be seen perched on wires, or sometimes hovering stationary in the air, looking for prey below.
A few years ago there was a kestrel hanging out at Target field that would capture and eat moths flying around the stadium lights. He was on TV and there was some pretty cool video of him, shown during a Twins game.
Many people apply the term “baiting” to include anything from setting up backyard bird feeders to harassing a raptor with live prey. I think it’s important to define what baiting is, how I see it as being different from other activities it is often compared to (a way baiters try to justify the practice), and why I believe it is harmful.
My definition of baiting is: actively luring an individual bird (usually a raptor) with live (or simulated live) prey, in order to provoke hunting behavior which brings the bird in close proximity to the observer, for purposes such as bird watching or photography, outside the scope of regulated activity such as falconry, scientific research and wildlife rehabilitation.
This differs from other types of bird feeding/attracting in the following ways:
- Bird feeders (including seed, suet, nectar, fruit, live mealworms) do not target individual birds. The birds are free to come and go on their own. This type of feeding is widely supported and encouraged by organizations such as the Audubon Society, American Birding Association, Cornell Lab of Ornithology, etc.
- Bird banding is highly regulated, done for research purposes, by qualified banders who must follow specific procedures and obtain state/federal permits to do so. Similarly, falconers are regulated and must obtain permits.
- Hand feeding backyard birds – many people compare this to baiting. It is different because the types of birds who will come to the hand are already by nature quite tame (chickadees, nuthatches, etc.) and already coexist with humans in backyard environments. They are species that are not dependent on one type of food for their survival. One can debate whether hand feeding songbirds is itself problematic, but regardless, it is different from baiting a raptor.
- Setting up perches near or on feeders for photography. This does not target an individual bird, nor provoke any behavior that interferes with a bird’s normal actions. And usually a photography “studio” setup like this attracts songbird species that are already accustomed to humans, or the observer uses a blind for more skittish species. There is no new human=food association that is formed as a result.
I believe baiting (as I defined above) is harmful because:
- Raptors are very prey oriented. They are easily ritualized and become habituated to humans when they associate us with a food source. This can result in the bird swooping in on people or even cars in anticipation of being fed (it has been documented many times here in MN.) This is unsafe for birds and humans.
- A bird that is baited is not just baited once. Typically it is baited repeatedly over a period of time by one or more photographers/birders. It often involves the bird being harassed/stressed by the behavior of those who are trying to get a closer view and can lead to illegal activities such as trespassing on private property.
- If the bait is live, it is usually a domestic pet store mouse. This is not the natural diet of a wild bird and there is the possibility of disease that may result from unsanitary conditions that these mice are raised in. And there is the possibility that the prey may escape and that is neither fair to the mouse nor good for the environment.
- If the bait is artificial, the the bird is wasting time and effort chasing a lure when that energy should be spent hunting. This significantly interferes with the bird’s ability to survive.
- Baiting is often done near roadsides which puts these birds in danger of being hit by a car.
- I am not aware of any birding or wildlife rehab organization that supports baiting. However several oppose it, including the Raptor Center, Owl Foundation, and Raptor Education Group. Also the ethical guidelines of groups like the American Birding Association and North American Nature Photography Association strongly discourage activities which interfere with a bird’s natural behavior.
For those who defend baiting, it’s interesting to ask if a) they have ever been involved with wildlife rehabilitation, and b) can they produce any statement or evidence of a birding/research/wildlife rehab organization which supports baiting as something that should be practiced by the general public. I’ve never gotten a direct answer to those questions from any baiting apologist. I think that says a lot.
One of the things about having bird feeders is that they will not only attract songbirds, but often will provide some good hunting opportunities for raptors. In our area the types of hawk that we find stalking bird feeders are the Cooper’s hawk and the sharp-shinned hawk. These hawks belong to the accipiter family which mostly prey on other birds and are typically found in wooded areas. They are built for speed and maneuverability, with short wings and long tails, in order chase their prey through trees and shrubs. Yesterday I saw this Cooper’s hawk swoop in on the feeders and pick off a mourning dove.
If you find a red-tailed hawk or a broad-winged hawk around your yard, it’s probably hunting rodents. They are members of the buteo family which tend to hunt their prey from far above (perched high, or soaring in the air) and then catching it on the ground. They are adapted to hunting with long wings and a short tail.
It’s interesting to see the reactions of the songbirds when these different types of hawks appear. If there is an accipiter in the area, the birds either scatter or freeze in place and sound the alarm (chickadees and bluebirds are especially talkative) until the coast is clear. When a buteo is around, they pretty much completely ignore it. For example, when this broad-winged hawk was perched in the back of the yard, the other birds were coming and going from the feeders as usual. Recently I saw a pileated woodpecker going up the trunk of the same tree where a red-tailed hawk was perched. The songbirds definitely know the difference!
Identifying a Cooper’s vs a sharp shinned hawk can be tricky. The two look very similar, although usually (but not always) the Cooper’s is larger and most of them migrate south for the winter, while the sharp-shinned hawk is small and more commonly seen here in the winter. Their ranges overlap here, and at any given time it’s possible to see one or the other, so it’s important to understand the subtle differences between the two in order to identify them. Size alone is not a good indicator, because a large female sharp-shinned can be the same size as a small male Cooper’s. There are some good resources online, for example this checklist put together by Feederwatch.
Sometimes it’s not possible to see the shape of the tail or get a good view of the legs, which are probably the most commonly used method of identification. In the case of these two hawks I’ve seen in the back yard, it’s easy to tell the difference just by looking at the head. The Cooper’s hawk has a dark cap on top of its head, and the head has a flattened shape, while the sharp-shinned hawk has more of a hood, where the back of the neck is also dark, and its head looks more round.
After the Cooper’s hawk left yesterday (it spent over 2 hours in the pine tree resting/eating), I went back there to see what it left behind. I found many mourning dove feathers from what it had just eaten, but I also found remnants of previous meals consisting of downy woodpecker and blue jay feathers. This is an adult hawk and an experienced hunter. They learn quickly where the best food sources are, and I’m sure it’s a daily visitor to the yard. I rarely see it, but I often see the feeder birds frozen in place, so I know when it’s around by watching their reaction. There is plenty of cover for them around to evade capture. We do have an abundance of woodpeckers, mourning doves, etc. so the hawk is help keeping the population in check. Now if it would only take care of those house sparrows …
It’s been a pretty cold start to the winter. Right now we have some low temperatures forecast that haven’t been seen in about 20 years (before I moved to the midwest.) I think the coldest I’ve experienced has been -22F and I’ve been out photographing eagles when the wind chill was about -40F, and my eyelashes froze. We are supposed to get down to -25F tonight and wind chills around -50F.
Not much has been going on in the yard, no unusual visitors or anything out of the ordinary. We do have at least one overwintering flicker, and have had a red-tailed hawk hunting in the yard recently. Normally I wouldn’t expect to see one here because of all the trees, but I’ve seen it a few times now. A couple of deer have been showing up to munch on what’s left of the garden (which fascinates the cats.)
Because of the extreme cold I’ve put out extra suet and peanuts for the birds. They need as much high energy food as possible. We have two suet logs and I’ve also got a suet cake up in the top gazebo, where I have safflower to discourage starlings. In the tube feeder we have thistle and sunflower chips which the finches really like. There is a second tube feeder with the same that I have hanging on the deck railing, out of view of the camera. The juncos like to hop around under it, catching anything the goldfinches drop.
I haven’t been spending a lot of time outside (other than filling the bird feeders). It’s good weather for firing up the wood stove and settling down to catch up on some TV watching!
We had an interesting visitor at the feeders this week. As you may have read in my 2013 Yard Bird Wish List post, I have been hoping for a Carolina wren. When I saw this bird on Feeder Cam, I immediately noticed the wren shape and bold white eyestripe, which really got me excited. But something seemed a little off – the tail is quite long, the color more drab that I’d expect.
So I was thinking Carolina wren, but I’m not an expert on them, so I posted the image in the Minnesota Birding Facebook page and many people commented on it. I also posted to the MOU mailing list to get some additional input, and got some great responses from that also. Some thought it might be Carolina, and others suggested Bewick’s wren, which looks correct but would be very unusual. There were some additional suggestions like rock wren or even house wren in bad light. I wouldn’t rule out any of those, because with just a single image like this, identifying a bird (especially if a rare one) is very difficult. But that’s all I have to go on.
I arrived home about 1 1/2 hours after the bird appeared, but couldn’t find any sign of it. I sat on the patio and played various wren calls. Tried the same then next morning and then the next afternoon I spent more time outside on the patio and walking around the neighborhood. A Carolina wren would definitely be interesting and somewhat unusual, although not unheard of. If it were indeed a Bewick’s wren, then that would be big news and I think people would want to see it, so I was really hoping to find it again. Not only would it be a rare Minnesota sighting, but Bewick’s wrens are in decline east of the Mississippi, so that would have been really cool to see one and be able to report it with a confirmed ID.
Unfortunately I never did see or hear any sign of the bird beyond the one Feeder cam image. Many people took the time to look and comment, and I learned a lot from the discussion. I appreciate everyone’s input!
Summer is such a nice time in the garden. Many of the flowers are in bloom, the grasses are really starting to come in, and there is a lot of bird and insect activity. We have TONS of bees, and I’ve seen a few tiger swallowtail butterflies and a monarch (which are sadly rare this year.) I recently noticed a hummingbird moth in the garden for the first time, which was very cool. It seems to favor the native wild bergamot (monarda fistulosa), while actual hummingbirds ignore that and go to the royal catchfly, or another variety of monarda (monarda didyma) which is not locally native, originating from the northeastern US. I’m ok with that because the hummingbirds love it (I’m assuming because it’s red), and the insects can enjoy the native version (which I have plenty of.) Everyone wins! I’ve noticed varies bird families in the yard with their fledglings, such as chipping sparrows, robins, bluebirds and woodpeckers.
A year makes such a difference. Last year we were in the middle of a big drought and the garden was in bad shape (even native plants were stressed by lack of rain.) This year we’ve had a surplus and all of the plants are doing great. Unfortunately because of last year’s drought and this year’s long winter, monarch butterflies are in serious decline. I’ve only seen one caterpillar and a few adults even though we have plenty of milkweed.
I’ve spent a bit of time in the back of the yard, which I’d let become a bit more “wild” than the areas closer to the house. Unfortunately that means there have been a lot of weeds but I’ve managed to get those somewhat under control. We had a huge amount of stinging nettle and various other undesirable things. I’ve pulled much of that and also have been transplanting more aggressive natives out back where there is more room for them (mostly cup plant and wild bergamot). It’s been very satisfying to see all of the wildflowers blooming and watch the wildlife activity, where there used to be buckthorn and other invasive plants.
There is still more to do, always buckthorn and weeds to pull, but I’m very happy with how the garden has taken off this year. When I first started tackling the yard 6 years ago, I had no idea how much work it would be and how much I would learn in the process!